The modern concept of identity unites three different perspectives. The first is thymos , a universal aspect of human personality that craves recognition. The second is the distinction between the inner and outer self, and the raising of the moral valuation of the inner self over outer society. This emerged only in early modern Europe [with Luther’s Reformation of Christianity]. The third is an evolving concept of dignity, in which recognition is due not just to a narrow class of people, but to everyone

— Francis Fukuyama, Identity