José Ortega y Gasset’s Revolt of the Masses—is that education may not keep pace with extensions of the franchise, that ignorant voting will substitute a rule by boobs for a rule by the wise. Uneducated masses, Thomas Hobbes reminded us, are as easily influenced by the flummery and flattery of politicians as any ruler is influenced by similar tactics on the part of advisors.

— Martin Gardner, The Whys of a Philosophical Scrivener