These “standards” have nothing to do with the organization’s image as perceived by outsiders. It’s the image perceived by insiders that matters. The insiders in question—typically second- and third-level managers with shaky self-confidence—are uncomfortable with any kind of behavior that is different from average. They need to impose safely homogenized mores on those beneath them to demonstrate that they are in charge.

— Tom DeMarco and Tim Lister, Peopleware